Towards Healing: Confronting the Holocaust through Psychodrama, Sociodrama and Rituals

  • Yaacov Naor
  • Hilde Goett
Keywords: Holocaust, Psychodrama, Reconciliation, Sociodrama, Trans-generational trauma


This text describes an on-going workshop project undertaken with second and third generation descendants of Holocaust survivors and perpetrators. The trans-generational transmission of trauma, differences and commonalities between victim and perpetrator descendants as well as those from mixed backgrounds are discussed. The use psychodrama, Sociodrama and rituals to bring about encounter, dialogue and the beginnings of healing are discussed.


Download data is not yet available.


BAR-ON, D. Legacy of Silence: Encounters with Children of the Third Reich. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989.

_____. Fear and Hope: Three Generations of the Holocaust. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995.

BERGMANN, M. S.; JACOVY, M. E. (eds.). Generations of the Holocaust. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.

CELAN, P. “Death Fugue”. In: HILDA, S. (ed.). Holocaust Poetry. New York: St. Martins Griffin, 1995, p. 39.

KELLERMANN, P. F. Sociodrama and Collective Trauma. London: Jessica Kingsley, 2007.

_____. (2009). Holocaust Trauma: Psychological Effects and Treatment. New York. Bloomington: iUniverse, 2009.

KRONDORFER, B. Remembrance and Reconciliation: Encounters Between Young Jews and Germans. New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 1995.

MULLER-HOHAGEN, J. Geschichte in uns. Psychogramme aus dem Altag. München: Kneselbeck Verlags KG, 1994.

NAOR, Y. “The Theater of the Holocaust”. In: LEVINE, S.; LEVINE, E. (eds.). Foundations of Expressive Arts Therapy. London: Jessica Kingsley, 1999.

_____; GOETT, H. “Confronting the holocaust through psychodrama, sociodrama and ritual”. In: WIENER, R.; ADDERLEY, D.; KIRK, K. (eds.). Sociodrama in a Changing World., 2011.

ROSENTHAL, G. (ed.). The Holocaust in Three Generations: Families of Victims and Perpetrators of the Nazi Regime. London: Cassell, 1998.

WAJNRYB, R. The Silence: How Tragedy Shapes Talk. Crow’s Nest: Allen & Unwin, 2001.

WARDI, D. Memorial Candles: Children of the Holocaust. London: Tavistock, 1992.

WIENER, R. “A Sociodramatist Goes to Work”. In: CHESNER, A.; HAHN, H. (eds.). Creative Advances in Groupwork. London: Jessica Kingsley, 2001.
How to Cite
Naor, Y., & Goett, H. (2020). Towards Healing: Confronting the Holocaust through Psychodrama, Sociodrama and Rituals. Revista Brasileira De Psicodrama, 23(2), 89-96. Retrieved from
Brief Communications